This is a web implementation of the 1970 Triadex Muse digital algorithmic music composer. It's an incredibly rare machine, one report claims that only 280 were built. And only a fraction of those are likely in working order. And that's a shame, because this was a remarkable machine and we can learn a lot from it.
There are eight 40-position vertical slide switches that control the composition process. Details on those are below.
The OFF-RUN-START switch turns the unit on and can reset the state to the beginning.
The STEP-HOLD-AUTO switch single steps, halts, or runs the sequence.
The REST switch turns the lowest note into a rest.
The Muse was invented by Marvin Minsky and Edward Fredkin at MIT around 1969. They formed a company named Triadex to manufacture the units, as well as accessory products including an amplifier and a light show in matching enclosures. Very few were made. The Muse sold for $300.00.
How It Works
The 40 rows are the available binary (0,1) sources. These are:
- OFF and ON
- Steady 0 and 1 values
- C 1/2
- The clock pulse, a sqaure wave that triggers the rest on the high-to-low transistion
- C1, C2, C4, C8
- A 4-bit binary counter incremented by the clock pulse
- C3, C6
- A 2-bit binary counter incremented every 3 clock pulses
- B1 through B31
- A 31-bit shift register clocked by the clock pulse
The four INTERVAL switches select from the binary sources to set the pitch. INTERVAL A-B-C, are binary weighted 1, 2, and 4, respectively, and map into a major scale. INTERVAL D raises the pitch an octave.
The four THEME switches select from the binary sources to set the value for the top of the shift register through an XNOR function; 1 for an even number of one's, 0 for odd.
The counters provide repeating patterns. The 4-bit counter repeats every 16 counts. As the clock pulse is a square wave, you can double the count to 32 by including the clock pulse itself (which explains the funny name on the label). Or you can triple it to 48 by including the 2-bit counter and get some 3-against-4 patterns in there. Or both for a 96-note pattern.
The shift register can provide delayed versions of any combination of those signals. Or it can recycle a pattern by feeding back a single B output.
But the really interesting compositions happen when two or more shift register signals are fed back with the THEME switches. We call this a Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR) and it has very interesting properties; books have been written about it.
I think it's important to note that musical composition often includes riffs, patterns, call and response, and thematic development. And sure enough, all of those elements are available here.
Here are some "compositions" transcribed from the User Manual. Click on one to load it into the Muse.
|Name||Intervals A,B,C,D||Themes W,X,Y,Z||Rest|
More on the Muse
The Muse was designed with 1969 technology, and it's easy to forget how severely limited the available selection of chips was back then. But new functions were also being introduced at a rapid rate, and a product design could be impractical one day, and doable in a month or two when a chip becomes available.
From the photos on the MuffWiggler thread (below) there are 29 chips, probably TTL logic. There are 7 chips in a line, probably 7406's, that drive the lamps (not LEDs). The counters might be be 7474 D-flops. The shift register appears to be implemented with 3 large 24-pin packages providing 10 bits each.
It's a pretty complex machine for a 1970 consumer product.
There is some contention on how the audio oscillator works. Chamberlin claims it's a VCO, but the board doesn't appear to have an analog oscillator on it. The patent claims it's a 1 bit serial accumulator (!!!) built with a shift register recirculating the value around a single bit full adder. That would be crazy and weirdly practical if a traditional accumualator was expensive to implement with the available chips. The Programming Manual claims it's a divide-by-N counter. So right now it's a mystery.
After the oscillator, a flip-flop geneates a note an octave below, and the INTERVAL D value switches between the two. Note that a major scale has 7 notes, while a 3-bit binary quantity has 8 values, there is one note of overlap.
I've based this implementation on the Triadex manuals, the patent, and scrutinizing some terrible videos in slow motion. (Someone competent should do a video demo.) I have never actually seen a Triadex Muse.
The description in the Muse section in Hal Chamberlin's, Musical Applications of Microprocessors is very helpful on the whole, but be aware that pretty much every detail is inconsistent with the other sources.
Triadex Muse User Manual, Triadex Inc., 1970
Triadex Muse Programming Manual, Triadex Inc., 1970
US Patent 3610801, Digital music synthesizer, Filed Feb 16, 1970, Granted Oct 5 1971.
Hal Chamberlin, Musical Applications of Microprocessors. 1980.
MuffWiggler thread, Triadex "The Muse" pics and sound clips, 2010. Interesting photograph of the internal construction.